JOURNEY BACK TO THE GARUMNA
(Fragments from the book)
Scholars of Celtic history and language face a dilemma of ambivalence and uncertainty. Some ascribe it to »myth« arising from »ambiguity and pervasion of legend« and recognize it »as having come to us in a symbolic form«. They suggest that »one of the chief methods of investigation, but not the sole discipline, be ‘to proceed’ by psychoanalyzing the myth, the legend, and at the same time the purely historic, or what is believed to be historic.« (Jean Markale, The Celts, p. 19).
Others plainly admit that »the history of the Celts is veiled in uncertainties«. They »place the Celtic origin with the Indo-Europeans who, in the third millennium B.C:, inhabited the territory of the Carpathian Mountains. The story of their dispersal north and west remains unclear. Rich in oral tradition, details of everyday life must be pieced together from later classical references, archaeological finds, and legends later put into writing by Irish monks«. »For now,« they say, »we must define the Celts as a loose federation of European tribes – people who never formed a political empire but who shared a common tongue, a distinctive material culture, and closely related religious ideas« (Supplement to National Geographic, May 1977, Vol. 151, No. 5, p. 582A).
According to still other authors, »an aura of inscrutable mystery haunts their descendants to this day« (Gwenc’hlan La Scouëzec, Guide de la Bretagne Mystérieuse). It is the intent of this book to dispel some of this ambiguity and uncertainty; not by any further refinement of the Celtic paradox but, rather, by detaching from it a very troubling and confusing element causing it.
To give a concrete example of some of what is being attempted, let us examine the paradox of the Celtic mode of fighting. Polybius reports that a Celt went into battle naked, except for his helmet, neck torque, and belt. Thus attired, he felt himself to be protected by a higher power. Yet, on the caldron of Gundestrup, claimed as being of Celtic provenance, the warrior marches into battle clothed in tight-fitting trousers. The paradox arises in many instances from the fact that things obviously not Celtic have been claimed as such. The very name of Kelt is synonymous with the »kilt« he wears. Therefore, the warrior on the caldron of Gundestrup cannot possibly portrait a Celt.
Another case in point: human sacrifices were purportedly conducted by Celts in oak groves and the victims bled so that blood drenched the altars. The sacrificial victim depicted on the caldron of Gundestrup, on the other hand, is a youngster being pitched by the priest into the sacred cinerary shaft.
With all due deference to the often frustrated efforts at descryption of many a suppose a Celtic passage, it should be realized that the early branching off of the Celtic from the Indo-European trunk offers ready parameters to the Celtic scholar, without the need of encroaching on the linguistic sphere of an obviously more recently departed linguistic subgroup. As a direct result of the transcription and translation of the forty-two Venetic (Slavic) passages from Gaul, a more clearly defined demarcation will benefit both groups. It is to this end that this work is undertaken.
Pronunciational Rules of Thumb
Francization of Slavic place names in France has in some instances obliterated the original form. Yet, in many others, it left the tehnic elements untouched. Without entering into an extensive sound evaluation of the French alphabet, in itself a difficult task, a few rules of thumb may suffice for our purposes:
for EAU or EAUX read O (as in TOW),
for OU or OUX read OO (as in BOOT),
for E, -ER, and –IER read YE (as in YET),
for EUX read YI (as in YIP, although this is an approximation),
for -AIS read E (as in GET), for OI or –OIS read WA (as in WANT),
for Ç read S (as in SAM).
In the Slovene, Kajkavian and Chakavian Croatian, each letter retains its sound unchanged in all words (with minor exceptions), unlike in Engish in which letters may change their sounds in different words. With some exceptions, Latin sound values for each letter would be en approximate guideline. Without further phonetic elaboration, it should be noted that diacritical marks above C, S and Z do give each a specific sound value. Accordingly, for È read CH (as in CHIP), for Š read SH (as in SHOP) and Ž read G (as in GENRE, GENDARME). /.../
The reader should also be aware that we are dealing with dialectal and not literary forms. The latter, in Slovene especially, are nineteenth century artificial attempt at integration of some fifty dialects into a cohesive new language. A very prominent feature of such dialectal variance from the literary language is a virtually universal AKANJE substitution of A sounds for the literary O of today. As we go along, the reader will be alerted to this feature by an abbreviated »akn« designation.
The New Indo-European Family Tree
It is of significance to note that in the entire gamut of names treated in this study, with the exception of Sipian, not one appear to be of Celtic origin. Nay, more, there seems to be no Celtic influence whatsoever within the structure of the Slavic forms. This may be ascribed to a lack of contact between the two linguistic groups, in spite of the fact that during La Téne Period (400-15 B.C.) the Celtic superstratum was politically and military dominant. IN Gaul, this may have happened as a result of the forced superimposition of the Pax Romana. According to most scholars, this became the death knell for the Gaulish language within two centuries. /.../
Both Tacitus and Pliny refer to the West Germanic tribe of Nemetes. At the time of Ceasar, we see the Nemetes occupying both banks of the Rhine above present-day Strasbourg. The area is just north of the transalpine rump of the Voilcae Tectosages. After most of the Volcae had wandered off in the third century B.C., this Tectosages remainder retained the region east of the Rhine and north of the source of the Danube.
With the Nemetes we have an instance of a small Germanic tribe labelled for their incomprehensibility to their larger Slavic neighbours. The word NM means in generally Slavic »dumb, mute,« i.e. speaking a mumbling incomprehensible language. Since the Romans accepted the label, the inescapable reference is that their first source of information on the Nemetes had been Slavic. It is unlikely the Nemetes saw themselves in this light, and even more inconceivable that they would have given themselves a Slavic moniker.
We must, therefore, assume that Roman contacts with Slavs in Gaul preceded those with the Germanic tribes. Had it been otherwise, Romans would have recorded the name by which the Nemetes called themselves.
The initial Roman interaction with the Slavs in the south of Gaul, however, became overshadowed by the struggles that ensued. As resistance to Rome escalated in central and northern Gaul, Celtic, Belgic, and Germanic tribes came much more in prominence. Caesar places a geographic designation on the entire struggle in Gaul by calling it »Bellum Gallicum«. In the same vein, he brands as Gallic (i.e. Celtic) all the tribes aligned against him, regardless of their ethnicity. As a result, the tribes in the south of Gaul, though containing a tangible Slavic substratum, become tarnished with a Celtic imprint.
A substantial Slavic presence in the south of Gaul in the pre-Roman and Roman period is also attested by three other sources of information from the era.
The Gods and Goddesses
The Petrogorii revered the goddess Vesunna to such a degree that the Roman title for their tribe was »PETROGORII vel VESUNNA«. Another goddess revered by the Petrogorii, whose name was found on an inscription at Pêrigueux, was STANNA. Referre to s »the standing or abiding one,« she was an earth goddess. Together with TELO, she is the female member of a Divine Copule who act as agents of fertilization and prosperity.
Tribal identification did not always have its origins with a divine entity. Divinization and demonization of animals as totemic sources of cults was also common.
This can be inferred from tribal names, the Volce tribes, for instance, by their choice of name, exhibit a belief that for them the »wolf« was divinised for possessing protective, deterrent, and aggressive magic. For them, it possessed qualities that were aligned with the forces of nature that members of the tribe admired, ort sought to be their own, be it cunning, ferocity, power, or speed.
Another such animal was the horse. It was represented more than any other animal. It was divinised because it literally made the difference between war and peace. Another is the wild boar. We find it portrayed at Pêrigueux as androcephalic (i.e. having a human head). It served as a clan emblem ofr the Petrogorii.
Veneration of goddess Vesunna and Stanna, or animals such as the horse, the wolf, or the wild boar, was not universal but subject to the vagaries of geography or tribe. However, there was a deity regarded as supreme by each tribe individually and at the same commanding general acceptance of all Venetic tribes. This was BELENUS.
Tertullian states that each province had its own god, and that for Noricum it was BELENUS1. In the same era, Herodian records that in Aquilea, BELEN (sic) was particularly venerated.2 Similar veneration in the territory of the eastern Alps, northern Italy, and the south of Gaul is confirmed by several inscriptions. Ausonius also reports that there was a sanctuary dedicated to Belenus at Bordeaus.3
It would appear, therefore, that regardless what tribal diversities there may have been in other respects, the one thing they had all in common, together with the Alpine and Cisalpine tribes, was the theodicy of recognizing BELENUS (a.k.a. BLEN, BLIN) as a supratribal supreme deity.
Lognon’s Reconstructed Map
The old map by Auguste Lognon is a geographical reconstruction of Gaul as it existed in 400 A.D. according to available historical data. From the names that follow it should be noted that the Slavic languages make extensive use of suffixes (ROB-RICA), prefixes (BI-GORRA, SE-GORA, LA SE-GOZRIE, and U-SEL), as well as of compounding (BURDI-GALA, BALATE-DO), thus enhancing word creation or tangential meaning
The (chosen) toponyms:
1. BALATEDO (BLATEDOU) 2. BLATO – Slovene, Serbo-Croatian and Czech – »mud swamp« – and DO(U) (DOL) – DOL – Slovene, Old Croatian, dial. Macedonian, dial. Russian, dial Czech- »valley, down, downward« 3. »mud valley« (located 35 kms SW of LOCCA below)
1. VIGORA (V’GORA) – prefix VI also V – Slovene, Russian, Czech; U and VA – Serbo-Croatian; VE – Czech; VO – Russian – »in, at, into« 2. .GORRA – (GORRA, HORA) – GORA – generally Slavic – »mountain« 3. »at a mountainous, hilly place« (located in the foothills of the Pyrenees)
1. PLAVIA 2. PLAVATI, PLUTI – generally Slavic – »to swim, to sail« (located on the east bank of the Gironde estuary, it is today’s Blaye)
1. BURDIGALA (BRDIGOL) 2. BRDO - Slovene, Old Church Slavonic, Serbo-Croatian, Czech – »slope, hill« – and GOL – GOL, HOL – Upper Lusatian, Lower Lusatian – »forest« 3. »forest hill« – This is today’s Bordeaux. All over Central Europe, toponyms such as BRUDO, ZABRUDA; BRIDO, BARDO, BYRDO, BRDO abound.
1. KUNAK 2. KUNA – generally Slavic – »marten« (located near present-day Cognac)
1. SOL 2. DOL – Slovenien, Old Croate, dial. Macedonian, dial. Russian, dial. Czech – »valley, down, downward« (two locations by the same name, both SW of Tours)
1. DOMNOTA 2. DOM – generally Slavic – »home«. 3. »home port« (located on the Médoc Peninsula, a port on the Gironde estuary) – The typically Slavic form has parallel galore.
1. GARUMNA 2. akn. form of GORA – general Slovene – »mountain« – This is an instrumental case form of GORA. 3. »mountain river« (Today’s Garonne, running a good distance along the Pyrenees.) /.../4
Throughout the fifth century B.C., along with other tribes, the Saluvii began to settle in the Po Valley of northern Italy. According to classical writers, they settled on the banks of the Ticina River. Here they became cultivators of wheat, millet, barley, and vines. Because of continuing migration of other tribes into the area, the population density by 400 B.C. became unsustainable. Sometime during the increasing struggle by other tribes against Rome in the fourth and third centuries, the Saluvii found the prosperous nearby Greek territory of Massilia too tempting a target. In their attack they overlooked the fact that Massilia for centuries had been a friend of Rome. Rome intervened by sending an army which routed the Saluvii in 124 B.C. As a result, a permanent Roman presence in Gaul was established.
The Saluvii found it difficult to bear the Roman yoke and rebelled in 90 B.C. and again in 83 B.C. Each uprising was ferociously crushed. The spine of independence of the Saluvii had been broken and they recede into historical oblivion. All that remains are the names of their settlements and inscriptions cut into stele, urn, and rock in the Greek alphabet characters. /.../
The area covered by the toponyms that follow is within a radius of about 35 kms from Orange:
1. AU(N)JAK (OVNJAK) 2. Compare with OVEN – Slovene, Macedonian, Bulgarian, Russian, Czech; OVAN – Serbo-Croatian; OWIEN – Old Prussian – »ram«
1. KAVJAK (akn. of KOVJAK) 2. KOVATI – generally Slavic – »to forge, to smith« 3. »forge, smithy
COL LESCOU – COL is French for »mountain pass«
1. LESKU (LESCOV) 2. LESKA – generally Slavic – »hazel tree, filbert tree«
1. Pronounced GOURNJE 2. This diphthonged toponym also comes from GORA – »mountain« – but in the sense of »upper, higher« rather than »mountainous«.
1. pronounced GONJ 2. GONITI - - Slovene, Serbo-Croatian, Old Church Slavonic; GONIT – dial. Russian; HONIT – Czech – »to chase, to pursue, to hunt« 3. Therefore, since the locus has a plural ending, »hunting grounds«
1. GORCE 2. The French feminine definite article »LA« is here added to »GORCE« which has its counterparts all over Slovenia and even now has exactly the same form, meaning. 3. »little mountains«
1. JAS 2. It is needless to repeat why the French definite article precedes this toponym. JASA – Slovene – »glade, forest clearing«
1. KONJEC 2. The French pl. masc. definite article is chosen because of the seemingly pl. rom of COGNETS. However, COGNETS (KONJEC) is in such a recognizable form that for the Slavic reader needs no further parsing. KONJ – generally Slavic – »horse« – The common suffix has the same effect as AC or AK or AY.
1. Pronounced VODANU (VODANOV) 2. VODA – generally Slavic – »water« 3. »watery place«5
Lying between an easterly bulge in the Loire River and a westerly bend of the Rhone, below present-day Vienne, the land occupied by the Velavii had a strategic location as a portage between two rivers. In a circle radiating 30 kms. From today’s St. Etienne, several toponyms speak of the focal activity of this tribe. Such names as ULIECQ (»hauling place«), VOLVOZ (»ox path«), VANOSC (»portage«), POTEAU (»roadway«) COLAS(T) (»carriage place«), GENILAC (»driving, moving place«), PAVEZIN (»linkage, connection«), NEZEL (NESEL – »carrying place«), BOZE (VOZE) and BOZAS (VOZAST) – (»tansport«) and VALAMS(T) (»Oxbridge«) point in this direction.
The fact that there is paucity of recorded data on this tribe also seems to confirm that its main preoccupation were farming, haulage, and trade, rather than violence and rebellion. Ots very name appears to originate in the word VELA (VELJA) – »agreed,« spoken as a personal bond upon a struck bargain. The etymology of the word arises from the infinite VELJATI- »to value, to be worthy, to agree upon«. The pp. VEL(J)ATI is dial. VELAV and lit. VELJAV, and the dial. VELAVJU means »the valued owns, the worthy ones«. The reputation of the tribe’s word being its bond was arguably its major asset and much effort spent in assuring its permanence.
Apart from the toponyms above, we also have the following:
1. pronounced very close to VARBJE (VRBJE) 2. VRBA – general Slavi – »willow« 3. »willowdale«
1. POVZAK 2. POVZH, PUZH 3. »snail place«
1. VIGOR 2 prefix VI and GORRE
1. BUCHALA – diphthonged BOVCHALA 2. BECHELA, now CHEBELA – is still seen in the verb BUCHATI – »to buzz, to roar« – CHEBELA. Slovene – »bee«; PCHELA, CHEKA – Serbo-Croatian; PCHELA – Macedonian, Bulgarian, Church Slavonic, Russian: PCHOLA – Ukrainian; VCHELA – Czech, Slovak; PSZCZOLA – Polish.
1. BRINJALS(T) 2.BRINJE – Slovene, Serbo-Croat – »juniper«
1. CHARNAS(T) – (CHARNAST) 2. Dial. CHARN, lit. CHRN – generally Slavic –»black«
1. CHAVANOL 2 CHOLN, CHUN – generally Slavic – »boat«; dial. Slovene – CHAV’N, CHOV’N
COUZON / COUZON RIVER
1. KOVZON (KUZON) – dipththonged form of KOUZA 2. KOZA – generally Slavic – »she-goat« – COUZON is on the COUZON RIVER.
1.KUZJE (KOZJOV) 2. KOZA – generally Slavic – »she-goat«
1. KAVDRAS(T) – the diphthonged KAUDRAS(T)- KODRASTc 2. KODER – Slovene, Russian; KUDRA - Serbo-Croatian, Old Czech – »curl« 3. The suffix AS(T) renders it »curly«
1. JANCENAJ 2. Dial. JANC – from JANJEC – Slovene . »lamb«
1. PRADAL (PREDAL) 2. PREDAL, PREDEL – Slovene – »something that is fenced, a narrow tract of land«
1. LUZERNOD (LUZERNAT) 2 LUSNEC – Slovene – »LATHREA SQUAMARIA« (»bran, bran tailings«)
1. MAGLAS(T) – ( (MEGLEN) 2. MAGLA, MEGLA – generally Slavic – »fog« 3. »foggy«
1.MALATRAJ 2. MALA – feminine singular of MALI, MAL – generally Slavic – »little, small, short« – TRAJ from TRAJATI – Slovene, Serbo-Croate; TRATI – Old Czech; TRACH – Upper Lusatian – »to last« 3. Therefore, »short-lasting«
1. Dial MALEN 2. Lit. MUN – generally Slavic – »mill«
1. KULA 2. KULA – Serbo-Croatian – »tower, castle«
1. JASERI 2. JASA – Slovene – »glade, clearing«
1. RAJAS – again the French fem. Definite article before a seeming feminine toponym 2. RAJ – generally Slavic – »paradise, heaven«; JASSE – JASE – (fem. Pl.) . Slovene – »glade« 3. »heavenly glades«
1. LIZERON 2. LESTI – generally Slavic – »to crawl, to creep« – 1st pers. Sing. Pres. - LEZEM
PARC DE PILAT
1. PILAT 2. PILA – generally Slavic »sawmill«
1. PELINK 2. PELIN – generally Slavic – »Artemisia Absinthium«, i.e. »wormwood, absinthe«
1. PERVUSEL 2. PERV- PRVI – Slovene, Serbo-Croatian, PRVY – Czech; PERVYJ – Russian – »first« – USSEL. SELO – generally Slavic – »village, hamlet« 3. Therefore, »first village, first settled«
1. RIBAS(T) 2. RIBA – generally Slavic – »fish«
1. RIBERI 2. RIBA – generally Slavic – »fish«
1. SENEVAS(T) 2.SENO – generally Slavic – »hay« 3. For the adj. suffix add ED or »full«
1. TARTARAS(T) (TRTARAST) 2. TRTA – Slovene, dial. Croatian – »vine« – For the AS(T) adj. suffix, one can improvise by adding ED or »full« or some such attribute. The reader has seen this several times and need not be reminded in further toponyms.
1. TRVAS(T) 2. TREVA, TRAVA – general Slovene – »grass, fodder«
1. Pronounced close to VIDRIJE 2. VIDRA – Slovene, Serbo-Croatian; VYDRA – Russian, Czech – »otter« 3. therefore, »otter place«
1. VINOJ 2. VINO – generally Slavic »wine«
YZERON / YZERON RIVER
1. IZERON (JIZERNO) 2. JEZER-O – generally Slavic – »lake« /.../6
As with the Velavii, there is little historical information of the Segusavi’s movement once they left theior northern homeland. Judging by their name, their main preoccupations were agricultural. The paucity of data points to a peaceful, pastoral, farming group, engaged primarily in raising cereal grains and not Cain. That the SIAVI part of their name comes from the pp. of SEJATI (»to sow«) can readily be inferred from the numerous place names as ending in SIAT (»sown«).
Bisecting the Soane, above Lyone, the Segusiavi occupied the area between the Loire and the resumed northerly flow of the Rhone. Again, viewing several toponyms named after cutting farm implements, we are left with the inescapable conclusion that the SEGU portion of the compounded tribal name derives from SEKU, a dial. pp. of SEKATI (»to cut«). Confirmation of the transference from G to K can be seen in Pliny7 where he refers to the tribe as »SECUSIAVI LIBERI«. We have seen another example of this in Antonine Itinerary in SECUSINA. From the foregoing we can conclude that the Segusiavi worked their fields and meadows with scythe and sickle and left the fighting against Rome to their larger neighbors. /.../
Of interest for comparison purposes are three toponyms already seen in Antonine Itinerary: OSIANA, SEGUSIONA, and SACCASENA, as well as the adjectival SECUSINA. They mirror the SEGU-(SECU-) and –SIACVI, -SIAT forms in Gaul to a T-
The (selected) toponyms:
1. KVASIA 2. Dial. Form of KOSA – Slovene, Serbo-Croatian, Old Church Slavic, Russian, Czech – »scythe« 3. »terrain where grass is scythed«
1. KUJSJAT 2. Dial. Of KUJ (TAKOJ) – Slovene – »immediately, very early« – SIAT – pp. of SEJATI – »to sow« 3 »immediately (as early as possible) sown« i.e. as soon as the snow is gone
1. CHAREJSJAT 2. CHARA – Czech, Slovak, Upper Lusatian – »line, furrow«; SJAT – pp. of SEJATI – »to sow« 3. Therefore, »sown in a furrowed line«
1. RAZA 2.RAZARA and OZARA – Slovene – »cross furrow at the end of a field«
1. MARVIZ(T) (MRVAST) 2.MRVA – Slovene, Serbo-Croatian, Chech; MERVA – Russian – »hay fodder«
1. SENOZAN (SENOZHAN) 2. SENO – generally Slavic – »hay« – and ZHANJ from ZHETI – ZHANJEM – 1st pers. sing. pres. – Slovene, Serbo-Croatian, Old Church Slavic; ZHIETI – Czech; ZHAT – Russian – »to reap, top harvest«8
Occupying the area below the headwaters of the Seine river, the Mandubii are not mentioned in any records as having rebelled against Rome. They take their name from DUB – »the oak tree«. Albeit, a lesser, or smaller, oak (MAN – »less«). /.../
The (selected) toponyms:
1. PLANOT 2. See PLANAY down
1. BORBILLY 2. BOR – generally Slavic – »pine, fir«; BILLY – BELI – generally Slavic – »white« 3. Therefore, »white fir, white pine«
1. RABUTIN 2. RABUTATI – Slovene – »to steal fruit«; RABOVATI – Czech; RABOWAYÆ – Polish; RABOVAT – dial. Russian – »to plunder, to loot«
1. CHARNI 2. CHRN – Slovene; CHRN – Serbo-Croatian, Chernyj – Russian; CHRNY – Czech – »black«
1. DRACI 2. DRACHJE – Slovene . »brushwood, dry twigs«
1. GODAN 2. GODEN – Slovene – »ripe, productive«, GODAN- Serbo-Croatian – »suitable«; HODNY – Czech – »diligent, good«
1. JARNOJ 2. JAR, JARINA – Slovene – »early spring sowing«; JARYJ – Old Russian; JARY – Old Czech – »sown in spring«
1. MOLOJ 2. MOLJ – generally Slavic – »moth« 3. Therefore, »moth-eaten«
1. MORVAN 2. MRVA – Slovene, Serbo-Croatian, Czech; MERVA – Russian – »hay« 3. the suffix AN adjectivizes it to »hayful«.
1. PULNJI (POLNJI) 2. POL, POLJE – generally Slavic – »field« 3. since the form is adjectival, »fielded«
1. PLANAJ 2. PLANA, PLANINA - Slovene, Church Slavonic, Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Bulgarian; POLONYNA – Ukranian; PLONIANA – dial. Russian – »plain, open country, ungrown terrain«
1. PREZHELAN 2. PREZHATI – Slovene, Serbo-Croatian – »to lurk, to lie in wait« 3. The suffix AN is descriptive of a locus »where one lies in wait,« probably for hunting purposes.
1. VOLNAJ 2. VOLNA – Slovene, dial. Russian; VUNA. Serbo-Croatian; VLNA – Czech – »wool«
Before they split in several groups and left for their bellicose wanderings, the Volcae were neighbors of the Boii in central Europe. Whether due to an exploding population or because of Scythian incursions into their territory, by the fifth century B.C., the Volcae are on the move.
A subgroup, known as Volcae Tectosages will be considered later. A less warlike offshoot known as Volcae Arecomici settled on the right bank of the Rhone River sometime in the fourth or third century B.C. On account of their peaceful preoccupation with agriculture and animal husbandry, we hear little of them. Rome recorded the exploits only of the peoples who rose against her. The rest were allowed to vanish into the mists of unannaled history, unchronicled.
And such it appears at a cursory glance would be the fate of the Arecomici. Yet, it turns out otherwise. Besides their name, we have several inscriptions and numerous toponyms. From these we can cull a clearer picture of the vital people who tilled the land that hugged the coast and sailed the great river to the sea.
The uncouth ear of the military recorder who first tabulated their name must still have ailed from the tinnitus of the striking ax and lance agai9nst the shield of battle. His error was corrected by the more sensitive hearing of the refined cartographer of the Peutinger Table, who changed the name to the way it sounded, to VOLCE (VOLTSE). This is very close to the oldest form for WOLVES . i.e. VOLCJE, in the Slovene language. The Volcje living on the Rhone were described as A-REKOM-ICI. As with GARUM-NA River, we again encounter the instrumental case in REKOM (RKA – generally Slavic – »river«). /.../
The (selected) toponyms:
1. VADET 2. VODA – generally Slavic – »water« 3. »watery«
1. BEZOVCE 2. BEZEG – Slovene; BEZEK –Kajkavian Croatian; BAZAK – dial. Serbian; BEZ .- Czech – »elder tree« (genus sambucus) 3. The CE ending is typical for place names. – Bezovje, a locus in Slovenia.
1. JAS 2. JASA – »glare, clearing« – see LARAJASSE supra
1. MAS(T) VADET 2. MOST – generally Slavic – »bridge«- BADET – VADET from VODA – generally Slavic – »water« 3. therefore, »water bridge«
MAS DE PIOCH
1. MAS(T) 2. Akn. Form of MOST – generally Slavic – »bridge« – PIJOCH – see PIOCH supra 3. »bridge of the cattle watering place«
1. MEJANES(T) 2. MEJA – generally Slavic – »boundary, border«
1. PAZAK 2. PAZITI – Slovene, Old Church Slavonic, Serbo-Croatian – »to watch over, to guard«
1. REDESAN 2. REDITI – Slovene – »to rear, to fatten up«
1. RODILAN 2. RODITI – generally Slavic – »to give birth to, to generate, to make grow« 3. With the adjectival AN ending »fruitful«
1. SERNAK (SRNJAK) 2. SRNA – Slovene, Old Church Slavonic, Czech; SERNA – Russian – »deer« 3. The AK ending masculinizes the locus to »roebuck« /.../10
2 Histories, VIII, 3, 6
3 Roschers Lexicon I, 755
4 The author presents us also 15 toponyms that are not included in this citing.
5 The author presents us also 51 toponyms that are not included in this citing.
6 The author presents us also 21 toponyms that are not included in this citing.
7 4, 18, 32 and 107)
8 The author presents us also 88 toponyms that are not included in this citing.
9 The author presents us also 6 toponyms that are not included in this citing.
10 The author presents us also 141 toponyms that are not included in this citing.
Published parts are selected by Peter Amalietti. The author has given permission for their publication and translation.
From the book:
Anthony Ambrozic: Journey Back to the Garumna ; 2000;
Published by Cythera Press, Toronto, Canada, 218 pages.
ANTHONY AMBROZIC, Canadian attorney (brother of Canada's cardinal Ambrozic) and explorer of the history of Slovenian / Venetian people; the author of two books on that theme: Adieu To Brittany: A Transciption Of Venetic Passages And Toponyms (1999);
Journey Back to the Garumna (2000).