Lives Journal 10

Ivan Topolovshek

 

 

ANCIENT CONNECTIONS BETWEEN LANGUAGES

 

(I)

Concerning a unified origin of the human language

 

One may wonder whether man had a language in his earliest days or not. This is what Fr. Müller had to say1 : »If we take an example that is close to us, all anthropologists agree that the Indo-European, Hamitic-Semitic, Caucasian and Basque peoples belong to one and the same race. But on the other hand, there is a firm conviction amongst linguists that the Indo-European, Hamitic-Semitic and Caucasian languages are not at all related to the Basque language.2 As each of these languages comes from a separate community and these different communities naturally revealed the ways in which they were related showing the primeval origin of one and the same race, we can conclude that these communities cannot have brought their language from home but must have formed only after their mutual separation

 

From the basis of this hypothesis one bit after another breaks off. The genuine relationship between the Hamites and the Semites is added.3 We have proven the relationship between the Basques and the Indo-Europeans by,4 discovering another element – the first is the Slav element – in the Basque language; the Basque language is a mixed language so it is phonetically very complex. Connections between the Semites and the Indo-Europeans have already been recognised by some scholars. The Caucasian languages have also already been brought into contact with the Basque language,5 however, if the Caucasian languages are in harmony with the Basque language and the Basque language is related to Slavonic, the Caucasian languages too must be related to Slavonic; we will provide proof for this later. We are left with the languages of the Indians, the Turanians, the blacks and the Malayans who are also more or less related to the Indo-Europeans which we will also prove in separate works. As the languages of all races are therefore related, language must have come about at a time when man had not yet separated into different races.

 

 

The Basques are the linguistic relations of the Indo-Europeans

 

The Basques can be considered to be the linguistic relations of the Indo-European language group and linguistically belong to the Slav family. After the publication of our book about the Basques, scholars did not want to hear anything about it and even nowadays most of them deny that they are related to any other language. This would mean that the Basques are completely isolated and not related to any language in the world. Scholars have falsified this for their own comfort: there is no trace of the opposite, it has simply been withheld; they find it practical not to show their true colours. It is all the funnier when a critic who has first rejected a work later admits that the opinion it expresses is completely legitimate as happened with my book about the Basques. In »Literarisches Zentralblatt«6 Linschmann states very directly that he now agrees with my assertion that the Basques and the Slavs are related which he previously rejected.

 

However, more time will pass before the Basques will be recognised as the relations of the Slavs. Zhunkovich writes in his latest work:7 »The assertion that the Basque language has Slav foundations and that the Basques are representatives of the former Slav inhabitants of Iberia, for now still inspires some opposition in the academic world, which conceals its ignorance with the rule that Basque is supposed to be some Celtic language. Therefore, everything keeps revolving in a confused circle around Celtic, which remains an enigma for scholars ...«

 

The best and truest origin of the Basque language is the Slovenian language as it is spoken nowadays in Carniola, Lower Styria, southeast Carinthia, in Gorizia, in the region of Trieste, northwest Istria, Slavia Friulana and southwest Hungary by about 1,200,000 people. The clearest and most persuasive argument in favour of an ancient union of the Basques and the Slavs is represented by the connections between the Basque and Slav languages. Correspondences in all the fundamental characteristics can be traced in detail: same roots, same construction of words by adding suffixes. We can find the same words for day and night and for many other natural occurrences, for social life, for parts of the body and illnesses, for food and clothes. Many expressions are reminiscent of household appliances and hand tools, followed by livestock breeding and farming. Similar names for animals (domestic and wild animals, birds, fish, insects etc.) and plants are also very important.

 

In order to offer those people who have not read the book »Basque-Slavonic linguistic unity« the opportunity to take a look at the matter, we wish to provide in alphabetical order several examples which prove that the Basques are not isolated, but that they are related to other languages. Here is a list of examples8 [in his book the author lists several pages of examples; below is only a sample of ten easy to understand examples without footnotes; the citations from dictionaries are in their original form; I. A.]:

 

Basq. arin easy, quick, nimble; Slov. uren quick, nimble.

Basq. joka en se battant: Slov. jokati weep, wail, jokanje crying, wailing.

Basq. kob-la yoke; Slov. kob-i-la yoke, a bar ready to wear.

Basq. korra-le chicken; Slov. kura, kure chicken, hen.

Basq. meta, metatu mettre en tas; Slov. metati throw.

Basq. opa desire, lust; opatu wish; Slov. up hope, upati hope.

Basq. peya tight rope; Slov. na-peja-ti, na-penjati tense.

Basq. pikatu cut, prick; Slov. pikati sting, wound with the sting, stipple.

Basq. potika walk on all fours; Slov. potikati se prowl.

Basq. zoritu mature, zori ripe; Slov. zoréti mature, zor maturity; Czech zráti mature; Russ. zrêtь ripe, etc.

 

It can not be quite an accident that the forms of Basque words in the convincing size constitute the accordance with those of Slavic languages.

 

 

Author’s notes:

 

1 Fr. Müller: Allgemeine Ethnographie. 2. Auflage, pag. 6.

2 »The fact that in recent times despite scientific evidence showing the opposite, the »scarecrow« of the ancient connections between Indo-European and Hamitic-Semitic languages keeps cropping up has no other basis than the Biblical story of Noah and his sons Shem, Ham and Japheth and could not even have come about without it. Besides, with the help of the Indo-European-Semitic relationship, the alleged problem is not solved as we are still left with the peoples of the Caucasus and the Basques, whose unification with the Indo-Europeans and the Hamites-Semites under one roof has never occurred to anyone.«

3 Fr. Müller, a. a O., S. 41.

4 Joh. Topolovshek: Die basko-slavische Spracheinheit. Wien 1894.

5 Heinrich Winkler: Das Baskische und der vorderasiatisch-mittelländische Völker- und Kulturkreis. Breslau 1909.

6 »Lit. Zentralblatt für Deutschland«, 61. Jahrg. (1910), Nr. 2, Spalte 6, bei Besprechung des Werkes: Winkler, Das Baskische und der vorderasiatisch-mittelländische Völker- und Kulturkreis.

7 Martin Zhunkovich: Die Slaven ein Urvolk Europas. Kremsier 1910. S. 33.

8 If the source of the Basque word is not mentioned then the word can be found in the Dictionnaire basque-française par W. J. van Eys. Paris 1873.

 

 

(II)

Basque-Slovene comparative dictionary

 

Basq. abodo-ta wasp, abe gadfly; Church Slav. obadŭ next to, ovadŭ oestrum; Slov. obad gadfly, horsefly; Serb. obad etc.        

Basq. areatu to harrow (Humb., Mithr.); Slov. orati to plow, or plowing; Church Slav. orati etc.

Basq. arin easy, quick, nimble; Slov. uren quick, nimble.

Basq. aska trough, manger; Slov. n-ashke beside nishke and neshke trough.

Basq. baba bean (Larram., D. T..); Church Slav. bobŭ bean; Slov. bob ; Bulg. bob ; Russ. bobь; Hungar. bab; Lat. faba.

Basq. ba-i yes; ba, ba, ba yes, yes, yes; Slov. bo j-a it will be, bo zhe it will be already.

Basq. bai colored badges, patches; Slov. boj-a color, bojar dyer; Serb. boja.

Basq. baldera beside bandera ensign, flag; Slov. bandera flag; Bulg. bandera ; Serb. bandijera etc.

Basq. baratu to stop, arrest; Slov. barati, pobarati to ask.

Basq. basa-buru mountain hamlet; Slov. vas, ves village, hamlet; Church Slav. vĭsĭ estate; Czech ves etc.

Basq. bil, i-bil to collect (Mahn, Basq. language); Slov. bir, bira collection, brati to collect.

Basq. bil-be yarn, fabric, bilo hair of man; Slov. bil thin stalk, bilovje amount of stalks.

Basq. bula chest, bua ulcer, smallpox; Slov. bula ulcer; Czech bul-ka an inflated body; Russ. bulka roll, Vienna bread etc.    

Basq. buh, buhatu, buhatcea to blow (Mahn, Basq. language); Slov. pihati, puhati to blow, to puff, puhor bladder, pihalo, pihavnik bellows.

Basq. chacha ballgame; Slov. chacha trinkets, bauble, checha puppet.

Basq. char bad, evil, evil spirit; charto evil; Russ. chortŭ devil; Czech črt devil; Pol. czart; Ukr. chort; Lit. ciartas; Slov. chrteti hate.

Basq. chard ango greyhound (for *chard-nago); Slov. hert greyhound, nagel (nagu dial.) quick; Church Slav. chrŭtŭ vertagus; Bulg. hrьt; Czech chrt; Polish chart; Pruss. curtis; Lit. kùrtas.

Basq. chehatu rub, crush; Slov. chohati strongly rub, to scratch, to curry.

Basq. choratu enchant, dazzle; Slov. charati conjure; Serb. charati etc.

Basq. danga bell-ringing; Slov. dinga danga and dingl dangl bell-ringing, don-eti to sound.

Basq. deatulu converted from *dealutu borer; Russ. dolotó chisel; Czech dlato; Slov. dleto etc.

Basq. eder beautiful; Slov. v-eder beautiful, cheerful; Church Slav. vedrŭ cheerful; Serb. vedar; Czech vedro heat; Pol. wodro heat etc.     

Basq. eman to take; Slov. j-eman-je taking, jemati to take, to take care of.

Basq. epel lukewarm; Slov. t-opel warm, toplota heat.

Basq. e-rreka river, stream; Slov. reka river, stream; Czech řeka etc.

Basq. ezko for *esko wax; Church Slav. v-oskŭ wax; Slov. vosek, vosk (dial.); Germ. Wachs etc.

Basq. ez-pada to fail; Slov. iz-pada-ti fail, iz-pad failure; Russ. vy-padatь to fall out etc.

Basq. e-zpaña beside e-spana and espaina lip, chink, slot; Slov. shpranja rift, chink, fugue.

Basq. ezten sting, goad; Slov. osten sting; Church Slav. ostĭnŭ stimulus; Serb. ostan; Hungar. ösztön, ösztöny.

Basq. e-zcurra oak (Larram., D. T.); Slov. shura cork.

Basq. gorromio resentment, vindictiveness; Slov. grom, *gorom thunder, grometi to thunder.

Basq. hiraka darnel, weeds; Slov. slak, *silak ryegrass; Czech jilek mámívy Lolium temulentum.

Basq. hiratu to end, to pass, to perish; Slov. hirati to languish.  

Basq. jaj-o, yaj-otcea be born, arise (Mahn, Basq. language); cf. Slov. jaj-ce, egg; Russ.

jaj-có egg etc.

Basq. jaka dress, jacket; Slov. janka women smock.

Basq. j-ak-i type dish, ahi, ai must, porridge; Slov. j-ag-lich-i, jeg-le millet W.; Czech jahla millet grain, apple porridge, must.

Basq. joka en se battant: Slov. jokati weep, wail, jokanje crying, wailing.

Basq. juzkatu make ridiculous; Slov. juckati shout, scream, laugh, juck yodeling.

Basq. igara mill (Larram., D. T.), eihar (Eys); Slov. cigalica (Dim. v. c-igala) predicament.

Basq. iña-tacia hail (Larram., D. T.) iño-tazi (Eys); Slov. tocha hail; Serb. tucha.

Basq. kaka-marto hanneton avec des cornes (Eys); caca-lardoa beetle (Larram., D. T.); Slov. koka beetle M.

Basq. kheeta espèce de barrière faite de branches d'arbre; Slov. shkit, shchit, according to Marc. shtit shield; Church Slav. shtitŭ; Bulg. shtit; Serb. shtit etc.

Basq. khurulla snoring, snorting, buzzing; Slov. kruliti grunt, growl.

Basq. kob-la yoke; Slov. kob-i-la yoke, a bar ready to wear.

Basq. koko egg; Russ. koka egg.

Basq. koma-i godmother; Slov. kuma godmother, kum godfather; Church Slav. kumŭ, kuma etc.

Basq. koroka beside koloka and kolka the gurgling of the hen; Slov. krokati to croak, to cluck, kokla hen.

Basq. korra-le chicken; Slov. kura, kure chicken, hen.

Basq. kora-ña scythe; Slov. kosa scythe; Russ. kosá etc.

Basq. kukuso from *kusuko flea; Russ. kusaka sting flea.

Basq. lamparoi-nak selon Pouvreau (Dictionnaire M. S.) dans les dialectes basq. fr. farcin (springworm) et en Espagne: écroulles (scrofula); Slov. bramor beside brambor mole cricket, bramorji (plur.) scrofula W.

Basq. lapa-ra tick (Larram., D. T.); Slov. klop tick, sheeplouse, cowlouse; Russ. klopъ bug.

Basq. laur-dene-ko mina four-day fever; Church Slav. dĭnĭ day; Slov. dan, den the day, o-po-min bout of fever W.

Basq. len ago, len-go formerly, previously, prior periods; Slov. len-tam some time ago, lan-i in the previous years; Church Slav. lani; Bulg. lani. Czech loni; Russ. loni.

Basq. lod-i thick; Slov. lad-ki dick leg.

Basq. lupetza clay (Larram., D. T.); Slov. i-lovica clay.

Basq. magin-cha pepper sleeve; Slov. mekin-a sleeve, pod, mekine (plur.) brans.

Basq. mak-a kneader, anvil; Slov. nak-lo anvil.        

Basq. maka shake beside makatu and makatzen shake; Slov. meket-ati to shake makatanje bleating.   

Basq. mamu fantôme dont on fait peur aux enfants, mamutu se masquer d'une manière hideuse; Slovak. mamona supernatural phenomenon; cf. Slov. o-mamiti to numb; Church Slav. mamiti to allure.

Basq. meta, metatu mettre en tas; Slov. metati throw.

Basq. minga-na tongue, language; Slov. po-menkan-je, po-menkovanje language of animals W., pomenkovati se s kom to talk with s. o., po-menk meeting talk, debate.

Basq. morrode démon familier; Slov. marot a type of deity.

Basq. motel stammering, ill, unwell, motel nago je suis indisposé; Slov. moter aged.

Basq. muga landmark; Slov. smuga line, scratch (Marc.).

Basq. mugitu beside ig and igitu to move (Mahn, Basq. language); Slov. migati waving, swarm, mig wink.

Basq. negu winter; Church Slav. snêgŭ snow; Slov. sneg; Germ. Schnee snow etc.

Basq. nihola de ninguna manera (Aizq.); Slov. nikoli never.

Basq. odeitea nublado, nublo (Aizq.), oteitu encapotarse el cielo (Aizq.), odei cloud (Eys); Slov. odeti, odeiti (dial.) to cover, odet covered, odeja cover, blanket.

Basq. ogara greyhound; Church Slav. ogarŭ a type of hound; Slov. ogar greyhound; Serb. ogar; Czech ohař; Pol. ogar; Hungar. agar; Rum. ógar.

Basq. ogaza beside pogaza cake; Church Slav. pogacha cake; Slov. pogacha; Serb. pogache; Czech pogáč etc.

Basq. omen un dire; Slov. omen mention, omeniti to mention W.

Basq. onek this, those, onak (Aizq.); Slov. onako (adv.) on that kind, on he, onaj jera; Serb. onakov of that kind.

Basq. ontzi vessel, tableware; Slov. lonec pot.

Basq. opa desire, lust; opatu wish; Slov. up hope, upati hope.

Basq. o-scola bark, shell (Humb. Mithr.); Slov. shkorja bark, shell; Czech skora bark, skin, fur (Rank.).

Basq. palanka barre de fer, phalacha heck, fencing; Slov. planka fencepost, fence; Serb. palanka; Russ. planka; Hungar. palank.

Basq. pertal-a trimming, ribbon, patch; Slov. o-pertal roko nositi to bear the hand connected with a patch; pert a piece of linen, bed linen.

Basq. peya tight rope; Slov. na-peja-ti, na-penjati tense.

Basq. phenna foaming ascend, to spirt; Slov. pena foam, penast frothy; Church Slav. pena; Pol. piana; Russ. pena; Skt. phena etc.

Basq. phiko-ta pox; Slov. pika mark of smallpox, pikast pockmarked.

Basq. phizu gravity, weight; Slov. peza weight, pezati to torture, to torment W.; Ital. pesa, peso load, weight.

Basq. phunzella virgin; Slov. punchara, punza, punchika young girl.

Basq. picher water pot; Slov. pisker pot.

Basq. pikatu cut, prick; Slov. pikati sting, wound with the sting, stipple.  

Basq. pipi worm, biphi mite bipitatu eaten by worms, worm-eaten; Slov. biba every creeping animal, a snake – according to Marc.; Croat. buba insect, crawling insects.

Basq. pitcho pennis, phitch-astre bladder, phich-a urine, pitch-egin to urinate; Slov. pich-ka vulva; Croat. pich-ka; Czech pikati, pič-kati to urinate; Pol. pica, piczka vulva, picza, pit vulva.

Basq. poistarica wagtail bird (Larram., D. T.); Slov. pastarica beside pastarinka, pastirinka and pasterinka wagtail bird.

Basq. pont-su moisture, wet; Church Slav. potŭ welding; Slov. pot welding; Bulg. pot etc.

Basq. potika walk on all fours; Slov. potikati se prowl.

Basq. puka toad; Pol. ro-pucha toad; Ukr. rjapucha etc.

Basq. senar beside senhar husband; Serb. zhenar womanizer; Slov. zhenar etc. 

Basq. seta-be sieve; Slov. sito sieve, sitar sieve maker; Czech sito, sejto sieve etc.

Basq. tirria lust, desire, tirriatu wish, require; Slov. tirjati demand, require, tirjatev demand, request.

Basq. turrus-ta chute d'eau ou tout autre de liquide cataracte; Slov. trush noise, tumult, trushiti to rattle, to rustle.

Basq. ugazaba beside ugesaba landlord; Slov. ukazova-vec ruler from ukazovati to command; Russ. ukazъ command etc. landlord = commander.

Basq. uga-z-aita stepfather; Slov. drugi the other, second + ata father = the second father; cf. French le second mari de la mère = stepfather.

Basq. uga-zama stepmother; Slov. druga zhena second wife = stepmother; cf. French la seconde mère = stepmother (actually the second mother).

Basq. ubel pale, dull, faint; Slov. uvel, vel sunken, pale; Germ. wel-k.

Basq. uste faith, hope; Pol. za-iste faith (Mikl., Etymol. dict. of slav. languages, p. 389).

Basq. zale spoon; Slov. zhli-ca spoon; Czech lžíce, lžič-ka etc.

Basq. zartsu from zarstu power, strength; Slov. cherstev, cherstu (dial.) vigorous cherstost power, strength; Church Slav. chvrŭstŭ solidus etc.

Basq. zata-r rag, duster; Slov. cota shred, clout.

Basq. zer, zer-k, ze question particles, zer duzu? qu'avezvous? Slov. zar interrogative particle; Church Slav. e-za interrogative particle; Serb. zar; Bulg. zera; Czech za, zaž, zali; Pol. za, zaž, zali (cf. Mikl., Etymol. dict. of slav. languages, p. 399).

Basq. zi acorn, oak; Slov. zhi-r acorn; Church Slav. zhirŭ pascuum; Czech žir mast; Rum. zir gland etc.

Basq. zila membre génital du taureau, nerf de boeuf; Slov. zhila, vein, bikova zhila bull's pizzle; Church Slav. zhila vein.

Basq. zizka vermoulure, zizka, zizkatu se ronger de vers (parlant du bois); Slov. zhizhek, zhuzhek weevil, grain weevil; Church Slav. zhuzhelĭ scarabaeus; Czech žižala worm, etc.

Basq. zoritu mature, zori ripe; Slov. zoréti mature, zor maturity; Czech zráti mature; Russ. zrêtь ripe, etc.

 

It can not be quite an accident that the forms of Basque words in the convincing size constitute the accordance with those of Slavic languages.

 

[Dictionary is without author's special notes which are too complicated for the intention of this place; only German words are translated into English, while author's explanations in French and Spanish are kept in original form. – Note by ed. I. A.]

 

Basque-Slovene comparative dictionary translated by I.A.

 

 

(III)

Summary

 

1.   Human races are not of different species, but there are only different varieties of the same species.

2.   The origin of language dates back to a time when man was not yet separated into different races.

3.   The so-called Mediterranean or Caucasian race (Indo-Europeans, Basques, Caucasians, Hamites-Semites) appears to be the origin for all races, peoples and languages.

4.   The languages of all families of the Mediterranean or Caucasian race are all related to each other.

5.   In prehistoric times there was a unified population in Europe which later separated north and south and language ceased to be monosyllabic but was already separated into dialects. The northern group included the ancestors of the present-day Germans and Celts while the southern group included the ancestors of the present-day Slavs and Basques.

6.   From the southern group, man gradually spread to all corners of the globe, except towards the north. It is from this group that proceeded the ancestors of the present-day Turanians, Hamites-Semites, Indians etc.

7.   The language of the ancestors of the southern group, the present-day Slavs and Basques, was fully preserved by the present-day Slovenians, also known as the Vinds, however other Slav languages (as well as Germanic languages, although to a lesser extent) bear the same mark and it is possible to bring them closer to each other through comparison.

8.   The language of the ancestors of the southern group, the present-day Slavs and Basques, is most closely related to the language of the Semites.

9.   The language of the ancestors of the southern group is also related to that of the Indians. The ancestors of present-day Slavs, Semites and Indians must have lived together for a very long time as is indicated by the word constructions.

10.    Often the Turanians, Hamites (negroes) etc. bear witness to the same linguistic origins as the southern group.

11.    The northern group, which included the ancestors of the present-day Germans and Celts, remained in Europe for the longest period. Then came the time when these people too headed south and east and mixed with their ancestors who had settled there earlier.

12.    The present-day Semites, Indians etc. do not ethnologically and anthropologically belong to the same level as the present-day Indo-Europeans (Germans, Slavs, Celts etc.). In the course of the millennia the changing circumstances of life between the migrations (climate, soil quality etc.) meant that these groups became ethnologically, anthropologically and linguistically far removed from their ancient identities in their ancient homelands, but despite all this they faithfully preserved the linguistic material from the times when they still formed one group with the present-day Indo-Europeans (Germans, Slavs, Celts etc.), only the grammar later developed in a different way for each group.

 

 

A NOTE ABOUT THE AUTHOR

 

Ivan Topolovshek (1851, Marija Gradec near Lashko – 1921, Ljubljana), Slovenian linguist. His father Jakob was a sexton, his mother was called Eva, her maiden name Jeller. He went to grammar school with the help of his parish priest and passed his matura in Innsbruck where he also went to university. He also studied in Vienna where he ended up working as a librarian at the Ministry of the Interior. After 1918 he lived with his brother Josip in the Vina Gorica mansion near Trebnje but after two years he had to go to a mental hospital (Lj. Studenec) where he died.

Topolovshek was completely forgotten, scorned and ignored. With numerous examples and precise citations he proved ancient Slovenian (Slavonic) traces from the Middle East via the Iberian Peninsula to South America (the native Indian Quechua language). His work was labelled dilettantish although he had graduated as a comparative philologist (Sanskrit, Zend, Lithuanian, Hebrew) and not as a jurist like Mikloshich or Kopitar. He only published two books – linguistic monographs in German which are impressive in their erudition and also as examples of manuscripts-prints; nowadays you can hardly find a copy in Slovenian libraries.

Johann Topolovshek: Die basko-slavische Spracheinheit; Wien 1894 [Basque-Slavonic linguistic unity], Part I. (the planned Part II. Was never published; I. A.).

Johann Topolovshek: Die sprachliche Urverwandschaft der Indogermanen, Semiten und Indianer; Wien 1912 [The Ancient Linguistic Connections between the Indo-Europeans, Semites and Indians]

Two short, consecutive chapters from the latter which form the first part of this selection have been translated here. The second part is Topolovshek’s whole comparative Basque-Slavonic dictionary (the original contains mainly German explanations), while the third part is the Summary (Zusammenfassung); both from the same book.

 

Selection, translation from German and note on the author by Ivo Antich

 

Translated from Slovenian by Marko Petrovich

 

 

 

Slovenian (gajica)

Slovenian (bohorichica)