Lives Journal 6

Branko J. Hribovshek

 

 

ABOUT THE NAME SLOVANI

 (I)

»Most of the world belongs to the children of Slava ...«

Presheren

 

Is there a Slovenian who does not know these words from the Introduction to the Presheren's epos Baptism at the Savica?! Using a similar phrase in the song Zdravljica (Toast), France Presheren helped make this the best known explanation for the name Slovani (Slavs). Let us take a look at some others.

The science of the history of words, especially their origin and meaning, i.e. etymology 1, should be an academic matter alone. But it is not so. The origin and growth of tribes, peoples, the nation and groups of nations, i.e. ethnogenesis 1, is inseparably connected with the etymology of their names. Ethnogenesis is a historical process, which is most closely connected also with politics, the past, the present and the future. This is reflected also by the above verse from Presheren.

The political aspect is particularly characteristic of etymological research into the name Slovani. However, the Slavic explanations for the name are not as politicised as the foreign ones. We may even say that the Slavic side of the affair is more a defence and an answer to the foreign explanations. The latter range from what are possibly only academic attempts, via explanations that are completely nonsensical to explanations, which we can say are simply political propaganda or even intentionally offensive. The others, including some of our authors, imitate them – in the past perhaps out of self-defence and political pressure – but nowadays through »political consideration«. This is why there are also more foreign works on the subject than Slav ones. Let us not forget that these foreign explanations and the pseudo-ethnogesis of the Slavs connected with them were the main content of the fascist and Nazi propaganda machines in the Second World War.

In the time of the Cold War these explanations were welcome political anti-Slav (i.e. anti-communist) propaganda, which is nowadays still propagated by certain circles a little more covertly. This is obvious from the daily press. In the respectable libraries of Western European institutions of higher education we can find the most nonsensical works on the subject, all that matters is that they were written by a western pen or keyboard. The Slavic works, the politically conformist ones, can be found only in the departments devoted to Slavonic studies and nowhere else. The sources quoted by most western works mainly begin and end with Šafaøik 2.

This state of affairs may encourage anyone who wants to become acquainted with the facts to delve into the appropriate sources. These are big books worthy of respect, full of details, and they give the impression that you cannot see the wood for the trees. However, as in all sciences it holds true that if big books are being written about a particular problem then this problem is still very far from being solved.

The other thing which provokes the non-professional – let us leave the term amateur aside for it sounds too emotional – (non)historians or (non)linguists, is the listing of the same historical sources, annuals, travelogues etc, which the hysterical experts use everyone in their own way, in order to prove to their colleagues the very opposite of what they had »proven«.

What then strikes the eye is the unbelievable number of conclusions in key historical »findings« moulded with words – otherwise this is not acceptable, it can only be this way, it is more or less probable and similar although they cannot provide any actual evidence to corroborate their claims. A person educated in the natural sciences, even if they have only the most superficial education, cannot accept this. It would be better to say: that is how it was because we prefer it that way or that suits our masters. This is particularly characteristic of German historiography and linguistics. Those who are part of this circle and who admit this are rare 3. Evidently, this does not mean that our side does not also produce any such works. However, they are much more innocent.

In what follows we will look through the explanations for the name Slovani. The review is by no means complete but it contains explanations that are most often quoted by the majority or are important for an evaluation of the contemporary political situation. Perhaps the reader will find some things boring because in order to remain impartial and show the whole picture, we must repeat some facts that are already known. And the critical foreword will probably also tell something new.

The opinion is more or less widely accepted that every explanation for the name Slovani leads to etymological, semantic and also historical contradictions. We will attempt to explain these in brief.

The purpose of this whole essay is also to propose a new explanation for the name Slovani.. Here and there we will take a look at the explanation for some other words in order to round off our claims or to eliminate old »clichés«.

Linguistic tools – above all the use of rules governing sound changes – have led to findings that are more or less generally accepted but the opinion prevails that the explanations are still not completely satisfactory. That is why we will use the same methods as I used in 4. The sound change proved very successful for studying the development of Indo-European roots but it can also lead to error as a result of nonconforming schemes. We then create the roots of the words ourselves and they are therefore artificial. We will avoid doing this in the new explanations. For us the concept of difference between a word and the root of a word will have no special value.

Sanskrit and Slovenian are two languages that have developed and exist naturally. Sanskrit is several millennia old and is therefore most similar to the supposed Indo-European language or protolanguages. Slovenian has been proven to be very old 5,6 and contains many words that are often in almost the same form and just slightly different (depending on the source, up to 30%) 7 with almost the same or similar meaning to that in Sanskrit.

We will look for the roots of words and suitable meanings as well as the meaning of their compound words in Sanskrit, and related Slovenian words in semantic links. This way both languages will be tools for arriving at an evaluation of the development, which we can assume to be closest to the actual one.

In the words of any given language it is people’s names that are preserved the longest in either the original or a similar form  4 – we will bear this fact in mind here.

 

 

The name Slovani

 

A look through the form of the name and related words in the best known Slovani languages 8 as well as significant parallels in the development of some other languages is given in the table. Empty spaces do not always mean that an equivalent word does not exist but only that it is not important for our discussion.

 

Three of the main theories show how the name Slovani comes from the word slovo (meaning ‘word’), from the word slava (glory) and from the Latin word sclavus (slave). That is why the table contains the words slovo and slava as well as some related words. We will return to them and the word sclavus later.

The oldest preserved Old Church Slavonic manuscripts are from the 10th and 11th centuries. They were given us by Saints Cyril and Methodius 9 and their followers. They were active as missionaries in the years 862/863 in Moravia at the request of Prince Rastislav. They taught the Glagolitic language and alphabet at the Great Moravian Academy (Ve¾komoravské uchilishte). They used both for government and religious affairs between the years 863 and 865, after which the academy was destroyed by the Germans. The two apostles continued their work as the guests of Prince Kocel of Lower Pannonia. Their followers later worked also in Preslav and Ohrid where they introduced the Cyrillic alphabet. That is why the oldest preserved records of the name Slovani in its present-day form are in Old Church Slavonic and from this period.

It is generally believed that a fairly uniform Slav language was spoken at the time and that individual Slav languages did not emerge until after the 9th century. Cyrillic is a very precise alphabet; that is why the sound and pronunciation of Old Church Slavonic are clear 10. Bor believes that the two apostles did not change this Slavonic language but that the language is for the most part several centuries older 11. In this case this would hold particularly true for the name of the ethnic group.

However, undoubtedly the closest »foreign« form (evidently quite changed) of the present name, was written by the Armenian Moses of Chorene (407-433 AD) and Jordanes (552 AD), as well as Ptolemy (2nd century AD). It is debatable if the meaning of the word cluveni featured in the Etruscan inscription on Phrygian gold tiles (6th or 5th century BC) is a name which is linked to the Slavs. It is also debatable if the name of the village in Noricum, Solvense, which is mentioned by Pliny (1st century BC), comes from the name Slovenci, i.e. Slovani 12.

However, the name itself is much older; we will prove this later. Its age and its presence in all Slav languages are proof that it is a self-designation.

 

slovensko:

Slovenian (lang.)

slovan

Slav

slovenec

Slovenian

slovak

Slovak

beseda

word

chrka/pisme-

nka – letter

slovó

farewell

slava

glory

 

 

hrvashko: 

Croatian:

slaven

slovenac

[slavonac]

slovak

rijeè

slovo

oproštaj

slava

 

 

srbsko /Serbian:

sloven

slovenac

slovak

reè

slovo

oproštaj

slava

 

 

makedonsko:

Macedonian:

словен

словенец

словак

збор

буква

разделба

слава

 

 

bolgarsko:

Bulgarian:

cловен

словенин

словенец

словак

слово

(бесeда)

буква

раздяла

слава

 

 

 poljsko /Polish:

s³owianin

s³owen

s³owak

s³owo

(biesiada)

czcionka

po¿egnanie

s³аwа

 

 

luzhishko:

Lusatian:

 

 

 

s³owo

pismik

boženje

s³аwа

 

 

polabsko:

Polabian:

slüövenske

 

 

slüvü

 

 

 

 

 

cheshko /Czech:

slovan

slovinec

slovák

slovo

litera

rozchod

slava

 

 

slovashko:

Slovakian:

slovan

slovinec

slovák

slovo

litera

rozluèenje

slava

 

 

 st. rusko:

Old Russian:

 

словeне

словяне

 

слово

 

 

слава

 

rusko /Russian:

славянин

словенец

словак

cлово

речъ

буква

прощание

слава

 

ukrajinsko:

слов’янин

словенець

словак

слово

буква

прощання

слава

 

Ukrainian: 

 

 

 

(бесiда)

 

 

 

 

belorusko:

Belorussian:

 

 

 

слово

боукваед

літара

бывай

здароў

слава

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

st. cerkveno slov.:

Old Church

Slavonic:

cловъне

 

 

глаголъ

слово

(бесъда)

боукъве 

 

слава

protoslovansko:

Proto Slavonic:

*sloveninъ

 

 

slovo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

litvansko:

Lithuanian:

 

 

 

žodis

raide

 

šlavé

latvijsko:

Latvian:

 

 

 

vards

burts

 

slava

 

proto-balto-slov.:

Proto-Balto-Slav.:

(rekonstr.)

 

 

 

slouo

 

 

 

 

st. gr. /Old Greek:

Σθλαβηνοί

 

 

λyγος

 

 

κλsος

st. ind.: /Old Indian:

 

 

 

 

 

 

zravas

avesta /Avesta:

 

 

 

sravah-

 

 

 

st. irsko /Old Irish:

 

 

 

 

 

 

clu

 

indoevr. koren

Indo-Europ. root

(reconstr.):

*slauos

 

 

kleu(H)-os

(kleu-Hs-??)

 

 

 

 

The Proto-Slavic as well as the Indo-European reconstructions 13,14 are artificial and are classic examples of a linguistic mess. And the word »beseda« which means »word« in Slovenian] only serves to further show the difference in the development of Slavonic languages, for it means something different yet similar in each individual language. Chrka and slovó are also two semantically quite different words in individual Slavonic languages. However, the word for glory (slava) must not surprise us – it is very old and unbelievably well preserved in almost the same form in all Slav languages.  

We can see that in all forms of the name Slovenec (Slovenian), the consonants sl, v, and then n are unvaryingly present. The latter is absent only from the name Slovak. Meanwhile, the vowels tend to vary quite a lot. Changes from o to a, and vice-versa, as well as between other vowels are typical of the differences between the Slavonic languages and their dialects. The same is the case with the name Slavonac, the name for Croats from Slavonia, which we do not mention specifically because it is so closely related. However, endings resemble each other and are characteristic of each individual language. The name Slovenec in fact has more linguistic »weight« than Slovan [Slav]. It contains more letters and is therefore also a better measure. The shorter the word, the less it is valid for evaluating a certain development, for a short series of letters is statistically more probable than a long one.

The name Slovenec is found exclusively on the border between the Slav and the non-Slav worlds. That is why it is all the more likely that this was the name which influenced the foreign appellation of the Slavs. The prefix –ec is commonplace when making nouns out of verbs; e.g. gledalec [spectator], poslushalec [listener], pevec [singer] etc. In this case sloviti becomes Slovenec just as peti becomes pevec. This is not a particularity of the Slovenian language as for example the Slovenian »Jugoslovan« (‘Yugoslav’) is in Russian – Jugoslavec (Юугославьец).

An interlingual invariable form of the name Slovenec can be sl-v-n-(c,k), where the dashes denote variable vowels or diphthongs. In this way the name Slovenec will be the standard measure for evaluating between different forms of the name Slovani (Slavs).

 

 

Historical variants of the name Slovani

 

We will only list them. The reader can find the details – a list of documents, chronicles and their authors in 7,15,16,17,18.

Variants of the name for Slavs in Greek sources up until the year 1025 (except for those about the Veneti) in »alphabetic« order and with an approximate number of chronicles in which these names appear are 17:

 

Άθλάβοι 1, άσκλαβηνο 1, είσλαβίνετξα 1, έσθαβώθην 1,έσθλαβώθην 1, έσθλαβωμένος 1, θλαβικός 1, θλαβινός 1, κλαύινοι 1, Λαβίνετξα 1, Σαβήνοι 1, Σθλαβηνοί 1, σθλαβηνοί 2, Σθλαβησιάνοί 5, Σθλαβιανοί 1, σθλαβικός 3, Σθλαβινίαι 1, σθλαβίνικος 1, σθλαβινίκος 1, σθλαβινικός 2, Σθλαβϊνοι 15, σθλαβινός 1, Σθλάβοι 7, Σθλάβος 2, σθλαβενικός 3, Σθλοβενοί 1, σκαβικός 1, Σκλαβάρχοντες 1, Σκλαβηνία 4, Σκλαβηνίαι 7, σκλαβενικός 1, Σκλαβηνιστ 1, Σκλαβήνσι 7, Σκλαβηνσί 51, σκλαβηνός 10, Σκλαβησιάνοι 1, Σκλαβησιανοί 1, σκλαβικός 5, σκλαβιναριος 1, Σκλαβινία 2, Σκλαβίνιαι 1,  Σκλαβινίαι 9, σκλαβινικαριος 1, σκλαβίνικος 1, σκλαβινικός 1, Σκλαβίνιοι 3, σκλαβινισιος 1, σκλαβινισκιος 1, σκλαβινιστή 1, σκλαβινιστί 1, Σκλαβίνοι 32, Σκλαβϊνοι 13, σκλαβϊνοί 1, σκλαβίνος 2, σκλαβϊνος 2, Σκλαβινός Σκλαβινοί 7, Σκλαβισία 1, Σκλαβισιάνοι 1, Σκλαβισιανοί 1, Σκλαβογενής 1, Σκλάβοι 64, Σκλαβοί 4, Σκλαβόοι 1, Σκλάβος 8, Σκλαβουνοί 1, Σκλαβοΰνος 1, σκλαβώνοι 1, σκλαηνοί 1, , Σκλαυηνία 2, Σκλάυηνοι 1, Σκλαυηνοί 20, Σκλαυηνός 1, Σκλαυινία 1, Σκλαυινίαι 4, Σκλαυίνοι 1, Σκλαυινοί 14, Σκλαυινός 3, Σκΰθαι Σκλάβοι 1, Σκλαβήνοι 1, Σκλαβίνετξα 1.

 

Also in Latin sources to the year 900 AD in alphabetical order with an approximate number of chronicles 18.

 

claui 1, esclaui 1, esclavi 1, exclaveni1, flavi 1, isclaui1, scaui 2, scavani 1, scavi 2, scavii 1, schlavi 1, sclabi 2, sclabus (?)1, sclafi 1, sclauani 2, sclauanii 1, sclaucrus 1, sclaueni 1, sclaui 32, sclauiani 1, sclauin...1, sclauini 2, sclauinienses 1, sclauinus*1, sclauis 1, sclauus 2, sclavani 2, sclavanii 1, sclaveni 6, sclaves     1, sclavi 239, sclavini 6, sclavitini 1, sclavonenses 1, sclavones 1, sclavoni 1, sclavunus 1, sclavus 4, sclawi 1, scovi 1, slaui 12, slavani 1, slavi 26, slawi 2, slaws 1, slcavi 1, solani 1, zlaveni 1, slaus 1, slawus 1, alani 1, avari 1, gothi 2, guandali 1, guenedi 1, guinedes 2, guinedi 1, guinidi 2, guinidini 1, hunni 1, huninidi 1, hwinidi 1, inmidi (?)1, umid 1, uuandali 1, uuinades 1, uuinedi 1, uuinida 2, uvinedi 1, vandali 4, vandalici 1, venedi 2, venethae 1, venethi 2, veneti 1, venetiae 2, venetiani 1, venetii 1, vinedi 1, vinidi 2, vionudi 1, vuinedi 1, vuinidi 1, vvinidi 1, vvinit 1, wandali 5, wandalitae 1, wandalus 1, wandelici 1, wenedi 3, wenedus 2, wimodii 5, windi 1, winedi 3, winedus 1, winethi 1, winida 1, winidi 26, winidones 1, winithi 2, winiti 1, winnetes 1, winodi 2, wynidi 1, winuli 2.

 

The number of chronicles is approximate because we do not know: 

 

– how many chronicles there in fact were, we know only of those that were preserved;

– how many chronicles are truly original (remember only the twenty thousand false German ones 19);

– how many chronicles were simply copied while the source is in fact only one;

– how many variants there are simply because each chronicler wrote on his own;

– all the sources are at least from second if not from third hand;

– there may be more than one variant in the same source which is then counted more than once.

 

Therefore, all these variants and the frequency of their use only serve to give us an overview of the form of the variant and its use. The most important variants, although they appear the smallest number of times in the above list, are the oldest ones, followed by those that are closest to the real name and then by the ones that are the most common.

Pri grshkih virih moramo uposhtevati, da se kljub grshkim sredozemskim in chrnomorskim kolonijam ime Slovanov z glasom s v zachetku pojavi pozneje kot razlichice za ime (H)Enetoi, to pa kazhe na dolocheno dushevno razdaljo piscev do Slovanov, ki je sploh znachilna za odnos starih Grkov do barbarov. Razlichice s sth- so starejshe kot tiste z skl- in jih lahko prishtevamo prej k bizantinskim kot pa h grshkim. Te kazhejo na dejstvo, da so bili Slovani prebivalci na podrochju Bizanca, saj je bila daljsha oblika, to je ime Slovani in ne slav-, izvor pretezhno vseh grshkih razlichic. Izvor kratkih oblik si bomo ogledali kasneje. Razlichice kazhejo tudi to, da je ime res slovanska samooznaka – v grshchini ni bilo nobene podobne besede. Kasneje bomo tudi poizkushali najti odgovor na vprashanje, zakaj se je uveljavila zachetnica skl – ne pa kaj drugega, kot je npr. sth-.

 

Overview of the names listed under the above criteria gives us the following:

 

Σθλαβηνοί 1 Σθλαβϊνοι 15 Σκλαβήνσι 7, Σκλαβηνσί 51, σκλαβηνός 10 Σκλαβίνοι 32, Σκλαβϊνοι 13 Σκλάβοι 64, Σκλαβοί 4, Σκλάβος 8, Σκλαυηνοί 20, Σκλαυινοί 14

(approx. Sthlabenoi, Sthlabinoi, Sklabensi, Sklabensi, sklabenos, Sklabinoi, Sklabinoi, Sklaboi, Sklaboi, Sklabos, Sklauenoi, Sklauinoi)

 

In these words, the linguistic invariants are sthl-b-n- and skl-b(u)-n-. Also present are the short forms Σθλάβοι 7, Σθλάβος 2, Σκλάβοι 64, Σκλαβοί 4, which give the invariants sthl-b- and skl-b-. We do not take into consideration the suffixes as they are entirely Greek.

 

Let us look more closely at the Latin sources. These also contain details from Greek sources; the connection with the Veneti, Vandals etc. is particularly interesting. From the above list of variants we get the following:

 

cl

u

           

 

 

1

 

 

escl

u

           

 

 

1

 

 

escl

v

           

 

 

1

 

 

excl

v

n

           

 

1

 

 

fl

v

           

 

 

1

 

 

iscl

u

           

 

 

1

 

 

sc

u

           

 

 

2

 

 

sc

v

n

           

 

1

 

 

sc

v

           

 

 

2

 

 

sc

v

 

           

 

1

 

 

schl

v

           

 

 

1

 

 

scl

b

           

 

 

2

 

 

scl

b   

 

 

us(?)

1

 

 

scl

f

           

 

 

1

 

 

scl

u

n

          

 

2

 

 

scl

u

n

 

           

1

 

 

scl

u       

 

 

crus

1

 

 

scl

u

n

           

 

1

 

 

scl

u

           

 

 

32

sclaui

scl

u

n

 

           

1

 

scl

u

n...       

 

 

1

 

scl

u

n

           

 

2

 

scl

u

n

 

ns - s

1

 

scl

u

n          

 

us*

1

 

scl

u

           

 

s          

1

 

scl

u          

 

 

us

2

 

scl

v

n

           

 

2

 

scl

v

n

 

 

1

 

scl

v

n

           

 

6

sclaveni

scl

v

           

 

s

1

 

scl

v

           

 

 

239

sclavi

scl

v

n

           

 

6

sclavini

scl

v

 

t

n          

1

 

scl

v

n

 

ns-s       

1

 

scl

v

n

           

s

1

 

scl

v

n

           

 

1

 

scl

v

n          

 

us

1

 

scl

v          

 

 

us

4

 

scl

w

           

 

 

1

 

sc

v

           

 

 

1

 

sl

u

           

 

 

12

slaui

sl

v

n

           

 

1

slavani

sl

v

           

 

 

26

slavi

sl

w

           

 

 

2

 

sl

w         

 

 

s

1

 

slc

v

           

 

 

1

 

s-l

 

n

           

 

1

 

zl

v

n

           

 

1

zlaveni

sl

u          

 

 

s

1

 

sl

w

 

 

us

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 al

 

n

 

           

1

 

 

 

av

 

 

r          

1

 

 

 

g

 

th         

 

2

gothi

 

 

gu

n

d

l          

1

 

 

 

gu

n

d

           

1

 

 

 

gu

n

d

s          

2

 

 

 

gu

n

d

           

1

 

 

 

gu

n

d

           

2

 

 

 

gu

n

d

n

1

 

 

 

hunn

           

 

 

1

 

 

 

hun

n

d

           

1

 

 

 

hw

n

d

           

1

 

 

 

inm

 

d(?)      

 

1

 

 

 

um

           

d

 

1

 

 

 

uu

n

d

l         

1

 

 

 

uu

n

d

s          

1

 

 

 

uu

n

d

           

1

 

 

 

uu

n

d

          

2

 

 

 

uv

n

d

          

1

 

 

 

n

d

l         

4

vandali

 

  

n

d

l-c

1

 

 

 

n

d

           

2

venedi

 

 

n

th

 

1

 

 

 

n

th

           

2

venethi

 

 

n

t

           

1

 

 

 

v

n

t

 

2

venetiae

 

 

v

n

t

 

1

 

 

 

v

n

t

 

1

 

 

 

v

n

d

           

1

 

 

 

v

n

d

           

2

vinidi

 

 

v

n

d

           

1

 

 

 

vu

n

d

          

1

 

 

 

vu

n

d

          

1

 

 

 

vv

n

d

          

1

 

 

 

vv

n

t          

 

1

 

 

 

w

n

d

l          

5

wandali

 

 

w

n

d

l-t

1

 

 

 

w

n

d          

lus

1

 

 

 

w

n

d

l-c

1

 

 

 

w

n

d

           

3

wenedi

 

 

w

n

d          

us

2

wenedus

 

 

w

m

d

 

5

wimodii

 

 

w

n

d          

 

1

 

 

 

w

n

d

           

3

winedi

 

 

w

n

d          

us

1

 

 

 

w

n

th

           

1

 

 

 

w

n

d

           

1

 

 

 

w

n

d

           

26

winidi

 

 

w

n

d

n

1

 

 

 

w

n

th

          

2

winithi

 

 

w

n

t

           

1

 

 

 

w

nn

t

s          

1

 

 

 

w

n

d

           

2

winodi

 

 

wy

n

d          

 

1

 

 

 

w

n

           

ul

2

winuli

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Overview of the names listed under the above criteria gives us the following: 

cl,sc,scl,sl   – u,v,b,w-

cl,sc,scl,sl   – u,v,b,w                                 – n,(t)-

                       u,v,b,w,gu,hu,hw                – n,m – t,th,d –

 

that they give together:

cl,sc,scl,sl    – u,v,b,w,gu,hu,hw               – n,m – t,th,d –

 

 

(Eneje)

(V)Enete Veneti

Veneti

Veneti   

Venedi Veneade enetulane (Eningija), Solvense

Stavanoi, Soubenoi Uenedai

Sklavajin                                                

Venethi, Sclaueni, Antes, Vinidae

Veneti

Vinedi, Sclavi

Winuli, Vandali

Vandale, Wende, Winule

Vandali

(Eneja)

Vandali

Wandali, Wendi

Slaui,Wandali

Wendi,Veneti, Sklaveni

Dimitrij Skepsijski (2. st. pr. n. sht.)

Strabon (1. st. pr. n. sht.)

Julij Cezar (1. st. pr. n. sht.)

Tit Livij (1. st. pr. n. sht.)

Plinij starejshi (1. st. pr. n. sht.)

Klaudios Ptolemaios (100-178)

Armenec Mojses iz Chorene( 407-433)

Jordanes (l. 552)

J. Bobbiensis(l. 615)

Fredegar (7. st.), Isidor Sevillski

Adam Bremenski (11. st.)

Helmold (12. st.)

Wincenty Kad³ubek (12. st.)

Heimskringla, Kronika norveshkih kraljev (12. st.)

Miersuae Chronicon (13. st.)

Albert Crantz (15. st.)

Thomas Kantzow(1505-1542)

Christophorum Entzelt von Saluelt (16. st.)

 

Wandali, Sclaven,Wenden

Heneti, Sloveni

Henete, Vene(d)te, Vinde, Vandale, Slovani

Venete, Vende, Vandale

Wenden, Sclaven, Wandalen

Seljabe

Sglau or Sglou

Saklab, Sakalib, Saqaliba, as-Saqaliba, Saqlab, Siqlab, Saqlabi

Slavije, Slavijun

Vendek

Vene

Venäläinen

Vindr

vena

Vinedas, Veonedas

Vinida

Sebastian Münster (16. st.)

Antol Vramec (16. st.)

Adam Bohorich(16. st.)

Mavro Orbin (16. st.)

Janez Vajkard Valvasor /Jochann

Weikhard Valvasor (1689)

anonymus: Hodud al-’âlam (pribl. 982)

perzijski zemljepis /Persian geography

patriarch Michael the Syrian (1166-1199)

arabsko /arab.: al-Ya’qubi, Ibn Hurdadbeha

Arabian: later

Hungarian

(Ruses) Estonian

(Ruses) Finnish

Old Icelandic

(Russian) Old Prussian

Old English

High German

 

It is also interesting to separate them into cl, sl, sc and scl, and then further into those with and without n.

There are probably fewer variants than it seems at first. Some of them very probably came about because the same name was written down differently. Of course, this cannot be precisely determined for an individual variant. Also, the way a chronicler »heard« a name produced many different variants. This is not so important for the following explanations as the primary sounds have been preserved in all the records. Let us take a look at what are chronologically the most important examples 15 and add some Arabic designations and names of neighbours for the Slavs or any of the Slav nations.

 

(H)Enetoi, Henetoi, (Uenedai), Ouenetai Homer (9th century BC) Herodotus, (5th century BC), Polybius (2nd century BC)

cluveni – in an Etruscan inscription on Phrygian gold tiles (6th or 5th century BC), according to an explanation by M. Bora 12; the Villa Giulia museum in Rome. This explanation partly contradicts the fact that the Etruscans called themselves Raseni. If, however, it denotes a broader concept – namely a denotation for the people to whom the Etruscans reckoned they belonged – then this explanation would have its own very convincing reason.

 

(Eneje)

(V)Enete Veneti

Veneti

Veneti                                                  

Venedi Veneade enetulane (Eningija), Solvense

Stavanoi, Soubenoi Uenedai

Sklavajin                                                

Venethi, Sclaueni, Antes, Vinidae

Veneti                                                       

Vinedi, Sclavi                                          

Winuli, Vandali                                       

Vandale, Wende, Winule                         

Vandali                                                     

(Eneja)                                            

Vandali                                                     

Wandali, Wendi                                       

Slaui,Wandali                                           

Wendi,Veneti, Sklaveni

Dimitrij Skepsijski (2. st. pr. n. sht.)

Strabon (1. st. pr. n. sht.)

Julij Cezar (1. st. pr. n. sht.)

Tit Livij (1. st. pr. n. sht.)

Plinij starejshi (1. st. pr. n. sht.)

Klaudios Ptolemaios (100-178)

Armenec Mojses iz Chorene( 407-433)

Jordanes (l. 552)

J. Bobbiensis(l. 615)

Fredegar (7. st.), Isidor Sevillski

Adam Bremenski (11. st.)

Helmold (12. st.)

Wincenty Kad³ubek (12. st.)

Heimskringla, Kronika norveshkih kraljev (12. st.)

Miersuae Chronicon (13. st.)

Albert Crantz (15. st.)

Thomas Kantzow(1505-1542)

Christophorum Entzelt von Saluelt (16. st.)

 

Wandali, Sclaven,Wenden

Heneti, Sloveni

Henete, Vene(d)te, Vinde, Vandale, Slovani

Venete, Vende, Vandale

Wenden, Sclaven, Wandalen

Seljabe

Sglau or Sglou

Saklab, Sakalib, Saqaliba, as-Saqaliba, Saqlab, Siqlab, Saqlabi

Slavije, Slavijun

Vendek

Vene

Venäläinen

Vindr

vena

Vinedas, Veonedas

Vinida                          

Sebastian Münster (16. st.)

Antol Vramec (16. st.)

Adam Bohorich(16. st.)

Mavro Orbin (16. st.)

Janez Vajkard Valvasor /Jochann Weikhard Valvasor (1689)

anonymus: Hodud al-’âlam (pribl. 982) Persian geography

patriarch Michael the Syrian (1166-1199)

arabsko /arab.: al-Ya’qubi, Ibn Hurdadbeha

 

Arabian: later

Hungarian

(Ruses) Estonian

(Ruses) Finnish

Old Icelandic

(Russian) Old Prussian

Old English

High German

 

 

We can compare all this with the invariant sl-v-n-(c,k) and with the above consonant groups. Of course, we must not forget that most of these chronologically listed names can be found also in the previous table. The next table allows us to see a more condensed comparison of names from the most important sources. (In the last column there are comments for comparison; so as not to lose an overview, groups of invariants have been entered from the previously listed Greek and Latin variants.)

 

 

 sl

v

n

c,k

 

ime Slovenec

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

sthl,skl

b,u

n

 

 

grshki viri

 

sthl,skl

b

 

 

 

grshki viri

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

cl,sc,scl,sl

u,v,b,w

 

 

 

latinski viri

 

cl,sc,scl,sl

u,v,b,w

n

(t)

 

latinski viri

 

 

u,v,b,w,gu,hu,hw

n,m

t,th,d

 

latinski viri

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(u)

n

t(d)

 

Homer,Herodot

 

cl

v

n

 

 

pyrgijske plo.

 

 

 

n

j

 

 

 

 

 

n

t

 

 

 

 

v

n

t

 

 

 

 

v

n

d

 

 

 

 

v

n

t

l-n

 

 

s-l

v

n

s

 

Plinij

 

st

v

n

 

 

 

 

skl

v

j-n

 

 

 

 

 

v

n

d

l-c

 

 

scl

v

n

 

 

Jordanes

 

 

 

n

t

 

Jordanes

 

 

v

n

th

 

Jordanes

 

  

v

n

t

 

 

 

 

 

w

n

d

 

 

 

 

 

v

n

d

 

 

 

 

 

v

n

 

 

 

 

 

 

w

n

l

 

 

 

 

-skl

b(u)

n

 

 

 

 

 

sthl

b(u)

n

 

 

 

 

 

scl

(u)

n

 

 

 

 

 

skl

b

 

 

 

 

 

 

scl

v

 

 

 

 

 

 

scl

v

n

 

 

 

 

 

sl

v

 

 

 

Saxo, Helmold

 

 

s-lj

b

 

 

 

 

 

 

sgl

(u)

 

 

 

 

 

 

s-kl

b

 

 

 

 

 

 

s-q-l

b

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

v

n

d

k

 

 

 

 

v

n

 

 

 

 

 

 

v

n

l

n-n

 

 

 

 

v

n

d

r

 

 

 

 

v

n

d

s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It is clear from the table that all these names have the same origin 20. The last column contains mainly suffixes, which depend on the language in which the name was recorded. In the consonants c(k), th, t and d we can undoubtedly hear the sound change of one sole consonant, but in some cases the cause is simply a different orthography. In the group with a vowel and v,w,u and b we recognise betacism. The groups of consonants sl, cl,st, scl, skl, sthl, sgl, skl, s-q-l and s-lj cannot be explained only through sound change. This is the case with sl and cl – perhaps the difference is only in the orthography. It is interesting that the explanation of the name cluveni actually does not exclude self-designation. But it is hard for us to continue with st or sthl. The groups scl, skl, sgl and s-q-l are undoubtedly related to each other, but phonetically they are quite far from sl. The oldest names are mainly made up of the last part of the name Slovani, while the younger ones are from the first part. The difference between them is bridged by Jordanes 21, which leads to the most likely explanation 22: Slovani, Slo-Veneti and Slov-Anti.

 

Of course, we must also answer the following objections or questions:

 

– Some of these names really are related but not all of them.

– The names Veneti, Enetoi, Henetoi, Uenedai, Ouenetai are really the same name, which is, however, »often« used independently (merfach belegt 23).

– The name Veneti was given to the Slavs from the Celts who bore the same name because the Slavs came from the same direction and assimilated them 24.

– The name Wenden and similar names have nothing to do with the Veneti, the nomadic Slavs got it from the Germans as Weidende (the grazing, weiden – to graze, Weide – pasture land) 25.

 – The name Veneti was erroneously ascribed to the Slavs by chroniclers 26.

 – The name Slovani came from the Greek sklabenoi as a geographical denotation 27.

 

We can see that most of these names are made up of three consonants, separated with vowels, but the first consonant may also be a group of consonants, which we count as one. The calculation of variation 28 allows us to calculate the probability of the coincidental similarity of names. Let us suppose that the smallest possible number of consonants in a language is 20 and for a group of three consonants we get the probability of 1:6840; for n-names the probability is 1: 6840 exp (n-1). Therefore, for three names the probability is smaller than 10 exp (-6).

 

We use the same method also for a name, which is »used frequently«. In present-day specialist dictionaries of any language we find at least 20,000 words. With great underestimation of the ancestors of any nation let us assume that approximately 5,000 words were in everyday use. Of these – probably less than the actual number – 100 words are supposed to be suitable for self-designation. So we may say that the greatest probability that two nations of independent and different languages would use the same name for something is 1:100 (and up to 1:5000).

 

For the same sound value of the name with three consonants, the above probability is 1:6840. These two probabilities are of course multiplied so again we have a probability of around 10 exp (-6), and for three 10 exp (-12) and so on...

We can see that the first two objections are completely nonsensical. I will leave it to the reader to reach a conclusion about the proficiency of the professors of history and linguistics at German and Austrian universities.

Similarly doubtful is the claim that the new arrivals got the name of some Celtic people whom they overran and assimilated – again a claim made by German historians. However, they do not explain why Finno-Ugric nations have the same (bearing in mind the differences inherent in each of their languages) name for Slavs. They are direct neighbours of the Slavs but not all of them are neighbours of Germanic peoples – all the same they are thought to have taken the name for the Slavs from the latter. Of course, this is particularly unusual because for them the Slavs do not »live« in the same direction.

The same is the case with the name Wenden – Weidende. Did the Finno-Ugric nations get this name from the Teutonic populations with whom they came into contact much later than with the Slovani (Slavs)?

The explanation that equating the Veneti and the Slavs is a mistake made by the chroniclers is not true. These two are often equated; however, a mistake would mean that the other details in the source could also be erroneous. What suits someone is correct, what does not is a mistake! This relates to Jordanes in particular who is supposed to have been a very bad chronicler. However, he is supposed to have been good at proving the Slav migrations – the drawing of the Balkan peninsula with Jordanes’ eye somewhere below the Rhodope Mountains is really pitiable 27. He is supposed only to have known that the Slavs are coming from the north, from behind three mountain ranges – the Rhodopes, the Balkans and the Carpathians – but he did not see that the rest of Europe was teeming with a Teutonic population. Of course, he hardly mentions these and considers them to be very unheroic in comparison with the others29.

It is characteristic of most of the more recent historical sources that the name is always written with the consonant combination sk-, older ones also write it st- or only s-, while the most recent ones also use the Slav sl- and omit the latter part of the name. In Greek, the Slav sl- is supposedly change to stl, sthl or skl  2 and others for linguistic reasons – Greek does not have the consonant combination sl.

 

The only group of nations, which took a foreign name for its group designation are the Germans. They took it from a Roman geographical designation, which came from a scornful Latin translation of the meaning of the name Raeti 4. The Romance peoples »history consciously« inherited it and the Celts kept it. However, both designations are only a supranational foreign designation for most of the nations concerned. The Germans themselves never referred to themselves using this name. Although the origin of the name is linguistically still controversial – more out of political rather than linguistic reasons – the course of the naming is historically entirely clear and also has its political cause. Some try to lend 27 the Slavs the above Germanic »speciality« but this is not acceptable because of the Slav self-designation. Therefore, the suggestion that the Slavs got their name from the Greek sklabenoi as a Byzantine geographical designation is also unacceptable.

 

The name Slovani according to Lozinski

 

In what follows, I more or less briefly summarise Lozinski’s 30 excellent essay on different explanations for the origin of the name Slovani as well as his version of the explanation. His essay is particularly important not so much because of the conclusion, which is, as we will show, very probably wrong, but because of his method. He is one of the few people who does not derive names only from the linguistic or only the historical aspect, but takes into account all possible influences known to him without any biased motives. The reader may find his sources in the original essay.

Lozinski believes that the origin of the name Slovani has never been entirely satisfactorily explained. In his essay his starting point is the Protoslavic form slovenin*. From the table we may see that this form of the name is used mostly by Russians, Poles and Bulgarians. I would also add that this form as a proto-form of the name Slovani is not acceptable because the meaning of the original word remains unclear.

»The three main suggestions derive the name of the Slavs from the word slovo, from the word slava, and from the Latin word sclavus (slave). However, etymological, semantic and historical inconsistencies exist for each of these explanations.«

 

According to Lozinski, deriving the name Slovani from the word slovo, meaning ‘word’ is illogical.

 

»A community of language could hardly be indicated by the noun »word.« For such a designation one would rather expect a word for »language,« or »speech« or any equivalent thereof. The only known use of »word« as a symbolic designation refers to the »word« as Logos, or to the Bible. In such a case the name Slovani would have religious connotations. The term »word,« as Logos, would be rather an exalted name for a people who, to our knowledge, never had any crusading religious drives, nor left any trace of a revealed religion in their traditions, even if their religion was monotheistic. We may, however, retain the idea that religious connotations were, perhaps, implicit in the name.«

 According to Lozinski, the use of a term such as slava, »glory,« for the proper name of a population is entirely without parallel. It might conceivably have been part of a dynastic title, but scarcely that of a group of nations, whose written history does not contain sufficient evidence for such a claim.

Here too we can disagree with Lozinski. Take the example of the name Aryan – Noble originates from Sanskrit:

arya – friendly, popular, devoted, dear, excellent, lord, ruler (this is the origin of the German word Ehre, Irish erin), which in terms of meaning is not far from glory. The name Iran is also related.

Lozinski warns that identification with the Latin sclavus, which in later medieval times seems to have been connected with the name of the Slavs, leads to difficulties of a historical nature. He does not refute the Slav migrations.

 

»There is no Roman sources, which would contain the name Slovani in any form. We find it first of all in Byzantine sources from the sixth century which are written in Greek in the form Sklavini. The Byzantines, who are thought to have been the first to come into contact with the migrating Slavs, recorded their existence and their name. But they did not get the name from the Greeks. Byzantine historians usually wrote down the name of foreign inhabitants the same way that the foreigners themselves used it or the way it was told them by an intermediary. Here we must not forget that certain Slav groups kept the name Slovani as their own name. They are the Slovaks, the Slovenians and the Slovieni of Novgorod. We can take this as sufficient proof that the name was not borrowed from Latin with Greek help but that it is a case of self-designation.«

 

 

About the Arab form of the name for Slavs (according to Lozinski):

 

»It is insignificant that the name of the Slavs in Arabic – Saqlaba – looks as though it were derived from the Latin sclavus. There is also no historical evidence for the possibility that the Arabs borrowed the name from the Latin-speaking populations, or from the Byzantines. Arabic records concerning the Slavs were, if not earlier, much more ample and more accurate than those of the Byzantine historians. The Arabs, who were in direct contact with the Slavs, could hardly have borrowed the name from the Byzantines. It is even less likely that they took it from the Latin-speaking populations with whom they had no direct contact. The form of the name used by the Arabs, and by the Byzantines, remains inexplicable. Only further studies may establish why the name of the Slavs sounded like Sklavini to the Greeks, and Saqlaba to the Arabs.«

Lozinski also suggests that both forms are derived from the same source.

It is possible that we have two names of different origin which are used for the same people. One is self-designation. Saqlaba is not an Arabic word and cannot be derived from the name Slovani in any form. The name is probably connected with a region, just like the name Germani. We will return to this presumption later.

Lozinski also proposed his own explanation for the name Slovani. In this explanation he took into account other facts besides linguistic ones.

»The basis for deciphering the meaning of any proper name should be looked for in its social importance in the group using it, in the possible traditions and uses of the name, and above all in the semantics and the cultural concepts of the time rather than of our own period.

The proper name of the Slavs must have been derived from a Slavic word, designating their most important characteristic and distinguishing them from any other population group. It could not have been the name of the language, usually derived from the proper name of a population. The geographical derivation seems tenuous, as such place names, although extant, are of little importance. Moreover place names, when not topographical descriptions, derive almost invariably from names of peoples, not vice-versa ...

The name of the Slavs might have been taken from the name of a clan or a tribe, but here again we have no historical evidence that such a clan or tribe ruled the whole Slavic branch of nations at any time. In any case their name must have had some specific meaning before it became that of a family, clan or tribe.«

Lozinski concludes that we should look for the meaning of the name »Slav« in the Slav languages.

»The name of the Slavs, according to recent linguistic studies, derives from the Indo-European root slov-, with a short vowel o. The Proto-slavic form would, accordingly, have been Slovenin*.

The East Slavic variation with a instead of o would, then, be a later development, possibly connected with the Russian pronunciation of unstressed o as a, the so-called akanie. This is considered to have occurred in the 12th – 13th centuries, although Vaillant claimed that it was extant already in the Common (?) Slavic. Such variety of opinions proves that not all the linguistic definitions may claim general support, and that all the reconstructions are hypothetical and subject to change. They are far from being definite solutions, as our knowledge of the early stages of the Slavic language is not satisfactory. The East Slavic form may well have been current in the preliterary period as at that time the East Slavic stood very close to the West Slavic.

 

Slav – Slovenin is certainly a Slavic name and it came to other languages from Slavic. The Western Europeans first encountered the Western Slavs, supposedly using the form with o. And yet all the Western Europeans since the tenth century used the form with a. As we know this a may have come from a Slavic long a, and not from the short o. The first variation seems more probable, as it is supported by compound proper names, such as Polish Boguslaw, Sviatoslav, Iaroslav, etc where the element – slav presents us with a vowel a not o, both in Eastern and Western Slavic.

Lozinski assumes that the root of the original designation of the Slavs was slav- rather than slov-, and proposes a different interpretation of the meaning of the name in terms of its semantic and historic raison d'etre.

What were the strongest characteristics of an early society? Not nationality, as this modern concept did not exist in early societies; not language, as the name of the language would have been derived from the name of the group, not vice-versa. The strongest were those of religion which distinguished the group from all others, providing the foundation of the whole cultural entity.

In the first millennium AD, the Christians of Europe were the counterpart of the Mohammedans and the Buddhists of Asia; Jews formed a group in terms of their religion not their speech, or their social or »national« affinities. Other designations of peoples or states were primarily those of the names of dynasties or of particular rulers. The pagans, in turn, had their own definition of populations of other religions, and, naturally, a name for their co-believers. Religious interests were indeed of primary concern throughout the period.

 

The name of the Slavs first emerged during the second part of the first millennium A.D. The name may have had religious connotations, meaning, or value. The tradition of a religious designation of people has survived among the Slavs until the present day. In Eastern Poland and Western Russia only the educated distinguished themselves or others according to their national or linguistic affiliations. In popular usage the national names of Poles, White Russian, or Ukrainians are nonexistent. »National« differences were, and still are, expressed in terms of religion: Catholic meaning Polish, and orthodox, pravoslavny, used as the equivalent of Russian, Ukrainian, Small Russian, or White Russian.

The term prawoslawny, pravoslavny, seems to offer a key to the name »Slav.« It is composed of two words: prawo, meaning »law,« »right,« and »right side,« and slawny from the root slav-, »glorify« in the sense of »worshipping.« Whether prawoslawny, pravoslavny means right, proper, or law-worshipping, is not the question. We are concerned only with the name Slovani which I propose was derived from the early self-designation of the Slavs as »worshippers

The term pravo-slavny is a compound, and as all compounds in Slavic a direct translation from a foreign language, in this case from Greek. In Greek orthodoxos the doxa retained the connotations of »worship,« or »belief,« »faith,« especially in Medieval Greek. Thus the meaning of the Slavic component at the time of the translation must have been similarly »worship,« »worshipping.« And indeed slav- had this particular meaning. Slav'n is »pertaining to worship« with an adjective-forming suffix; it has both a passive and an active meaning, although at present only the former is used. The meaning of »Slav« would be, then, a »worshipper,« »one who glorifies God.« In the compound, translated from the Greek, the »worshipper« became the »right worshipper,« or the rightfully worshipping. The compound translation from the Greek might have been used to distinguish the Christians, or the proper Christian worshippers, from the people called Slavs – »worshippers,« who were pagans, or, according to many Arabic historians, sectarian Christians even before the official conversion, in particular Jacobites, that is heretical, not rightful worshippers.«

 

Lozinski then provides historical facts to support his explanation concerning Christianisation and relations between the different sects and religions as well as their political influence in society at the time.

Lozinski’s explanation does not rule out the possibility that the name Slovani could have come about in pre-Christian, times. That is why I cannot object to his explanation on the grounds that the name Slovani is much older than the period of Christianisation and was written down much earlier as was already mentioned above. It does not matter if we »believe« in the theory of the Slav migrations or not. It was characteristic of the predominantly agricultural Slavs that in their pagan beliefs they preserved the cult of the Great Mother and were therefore quite different from their neighbours in terms of religion. Such an example were the Raeti 4. This could only serve to confirm Lozinski’s theory. The only objection that remains against his explanation is the question whether slov- and slav- are really only two variants or do they originate from words that have different meanings. Is the West European Slav, Slawe only an embellished version coming from the word sklave?

 

 

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april 2007

 

 

Translated from Slovenian by Marko Petrovich

 

 

Viri, literatura in reference / Sources, literature and references:

 

1 Slovar slovenskega knjizhnega jezika, SAZU, DZS, Ljubljana 2000

2 P. J. Šafaøik: Slovanske starozhitnosti, Praga 1837

3 O. Kronsteiner: Notizen aus der Steinzeit, European Editions, Saint Petersburg 2002, str. 90

4 B. J. Hribovshek: Imeni Raetia in Schwyz, Revija SRP, sht. 75/76, 77/78, Ljubljana 2006, 2007;

Edicija Pogum: Branko J. Hribovshek IMENI RAETIA IN SCHWYZ

5 To je vsakdanja uporaba dvojine, 42 narechij v 7 skupinah [This is the every-day use of dual, 42 dialects in 7 groups]

6 Brizhinski spomeniki, Monumenta Frisingensia (9./10. stol.); najstarejshi ohranjeni spis v slovenshchini (kopija she starejshega) dobro razumejo celo dandanes slovensko govorechi. Hranijo ga v Bavarski drzhavni knjizhnici, München. [Monuments from Freising, Monumenta Frisingensia (9./10. Century); it is the oldest preserved written document in Slovenian language (it is the copy of elderly one), and is well understandable at Slovenian-speaking people even today. It is stored in the Bavarian State Library, Munich.]

7 Shavli J., Bor M., Tomazhich I.: Veneti, Editiones Veneti, Wien, Boswell 1996

8 Tudi shtevilo slovanskih jezikov je bolj dolocheno s politiko kakor pa z jezikoslovnim in literarnim vrednotenjem. [Also the number of Slavic languages is in a higher degree determined by policy than by linguistic and literary evaluation.]

9 Enciklopedija Slovenije, 2. del, Ciril in Metod, Mladinska knjiga, Ljubljana 1987-2002

10 gl. 7 str. 212

11 gl. 7 str. 334

12 gl. 7 str. 321

13 M. Snoj: Slovenski etimoloshki slovar, Mladinska knjiga, Ljubljana 1977

14 J. Pokorny : Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, Bern 1959

http://www.ieed.nl/cgi-bin/startq.cgi?flags=endnnnl&root=leiden&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Cpokorny

15 Veneti.info zgodovina/history/Geschichte

16 gl. 7 str. 365

17 G. Weiss, A. Katsanakis: Das ethnikon sklabenoi, sklaboi in den griechischen Quellen bis 1025; Beiheft nr. 5, Glossar zur frühmittelalterlichen Geschichte im östlichen Europa; Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden GmbH, Stuttgart 1988

18 J. Reisinger, G. Sowa: Das Ethnikon Sclavi in den lateinischen Quellen bis zum Jahr 900; Beiheft Nr. 6, Glossar zur frühmittelalterlichen Geschichte im östlichen Europa; Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1990

19 Fälschungen im Mittelater: Internationaler Kongress der Monumenta Germanie Historica, München, 16.-19. september 1986, v 5 delih, Hannover

20 gl. 7 str. 319

21 Jordanes: De origine actibusque Getarum, v. knjiga

22 gl. 7 str. 320

23 S. Zimmer: Germani und Benennungsmotive für Völkernamen in der Antike, Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, Band 34: Zur Geschichte der Gleichung „germanisch – deutsch«, Herausgb. H. Beck et al., Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin 2004, str. 9

24 gl. 18 str. 11: »...Veneter sind im Slaventum aufgegangen. Der name Wenidi wurde von den Germanen somit auf die Slaven uebertragen.«

25 napr. F. Dahn: Die Germanen, Emil Vollmer Verl. Phaidon, Essen, str. 22

26 Slawen - Wikipedia

27 S. Brather: Ethnische Interpretationen in der fruehgeschichtlichen Archaeologie; Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, band42, str. 135,136

28 J. N. Bronshtein, K. A. Semendjajev: Matematichni prirochnik, ZHIT, Ljubljana 1963, str. 185

29 gl. 21 III. knjiga

30 B. P. Lozinski: The Name SLAV* in »Essays in Russian History«; edited by Alan D. Ferguson and Alfred Levin, Archon Books, Hamden, Connecticut 1964, © 1964, The Shoe String Press, Inc. URL: http://www.kroraina.com/fadlan/lozinski.html

 

 

 

 

___________________

Branko J. Hribovshek, O imenu Slovani, I, II; Revija SRP, sht. 79-80/2007;

sht. 81-82/2007

 

Edicija Pogum: Branko J. Hribovshek O IMENU SLOVANI

 

 

 

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